January 22, 2015

Sunrise clouds sky on fire

As a ray of white sunlight travels through the atmosphere to a point from Earth, some of the colors are scattered out of the beam by air molecules and airborne particles from Earth, changing the final color of the beam from a human observer. Because the shorter wavelength components, blue and green, scatter more strongly, these colors are removed from the initial beam. At sunrise and sunset, when the path through the Earth atmosphere is longer, the blue and green components are removed almost completely leaving the longer wavelength orange and red hues we see at those times. The remaining reddened sunlight can then be scattered by cloud droplets and other relatively large particles to light up the horizon red and orange. So this sunrise is a beautiful sunrise for our eye because of physics laws. But sunrise is always beautiful Our life must be a sunrise all the time. Kids are sunrise.
Beautiful sunrise clouds
© Photographer: Alvera | Agency: Dreamstime.com

January 7, 2015

Terror Attack on Charlie Hebdo Paris Headquarters

Terror Attack on Charlie Hebdo Paris Headquarters

Police in Paris are engaged ongoing terror incident in Paris which heavily armed terrorists who stormed the headquarters of a French satirical magazine called Charlie Hebdo.


Air molecules and airborne particles scatter white sunlight as it passes through the Earth's atmosphere. This is done by a combination of Rayleigh scattering and Mie scattering. (The Mie solution to Maxwell's equations (also known as the Lorenz–Mie solution, the Lorenz–Mie–Debye solution or Mie scattering) describes the scattering of an electromagnetic plane wave by a homogeneous sphere. The solution takes the form of an infinite series of spherical multipole partial waves. It is named after Gustav Mie.)
Early sunrise clouds
© Photographer: Alvera | Agency: Dreamstime.com
As a ray of white sunlight travels through the atmosphere to an observer, some of the colors are scattered out of the beam by air molecules and airborne particles, changing the final color of the beam the viewer sees. Because the shorter wavelength components, such as blue and green, scatter more strongly, these colors are preferentially removed from the beam. At sunrise and sunset, when the path through the atmosphere is longer, the blue and green components are removed almost completely leaving the longer wavelength orange and red hues we see at those times. The remaining reddened sunlight can then be scattered by cloud droplets and other relatively large particles to light up the horizon red and orange. The removal of the shorter wavelengths of light is due to Rayleigh scattering by air molecules and particles much smaller than the wavelength of visible light (less than 50 nm in diameter). The scattering by cloud droplets and other particles with diameters comparable to or larger than the sunlight's wavelengths (> 600 nm) is due to Mie scattering and is not strongly wavelength-dependent. Mie scattering is responsible for the light scattered by clouds, and also for the daytime halo of white light around the Sun (forward scattering of white light). Without Mie scattering at sunset and sunrise, the sky along the horizon has only a dull-reddish appearance, while the rest of the sky remains mostly blue and sometimes green.

Sunset colors are typically more brilliant than sunrise colors, because the evening air contains more particles than morning air.

December 27, 2014

The Carpathian Mountains, Europe

Mountain landscape at sunrise
© Photographer: Alxcrs | Agency: Dreamstime.com

The Carpathian Mountains or Carpathians are a range of mountains forming an arc roughly 1,500 km (932 mi) long across Central and Eastern Europe, making them the second-longest mountain range in Europe (after the Scandinavian Mountains, 1,700 km (1,056 mi)). They provide the habitat for the largest European populations of brown bears, wolves, chamois and lynxes, with the highest concentration in Romania, as well as over one third of all European plant species. The Carpathians and their foothills also have many thermal and mineral waters, with Romania having one-third of the European total. Romania is likewise home to the largest surface of virgin forests in Europe (excluding Russia), totaling 250,000 hectares (65%), most of them in the Carpathians, with the Southern Carpathians constituting Europe’s largest unfragmented forested area.

The Carpathians consist of a chain of mountain ranges that stretch in an arc from the Czech Republic (3%) in the northwest through Slovakia (17%), Poland (10%), Hungary (4%) and Ukraine (11%) to Romania (53%) in the east and on to the Iron Gates on the River Danube between Romania and Serbia (2%) in the south. The highest range within the Carpathians is the Tatras, on the border of Slovakia and Poland, where the highest peaks exceed 2,600 m (8,530 ft). The second-highest range is the Southern Carpathians in Romania, where the highest peaks exceed 2,500 m (8,202 ft).

The Carpathians are usually divided into three major parts: the Western Carpathians (Czech Republic, Poland, Slovakia), the Eastern Carpathians (southeastern Poland, eastern Slovakia, Ukraine, Romania), and the Southern Carpathians (Romania, Serbia). (source wikipedia)

December 22, 2014

Red crested European duck

Red crested diving duck (Netta Rufina) on water
© Photographer: Alvera | Agency: Dreamstime.com
There are three categories of Red-crested Pochards which occur in a wild state in the UK: escapes from captivity, ferally breeding birds and genuine vagrants from Europe. Unfortunately for any one individual found in the wild, working out which of the categories it fits into is usually impossible so proving you've seen a genuinely wild vagrant here is a hopeless task. Leucism is frequent among captive (and thus escaped) birds.

December 19, 2014

Pretty teacher

Public education is universally available, with control and funding coming from the state, local, and federal government. Public school curricula, funding, teaching, employment, and other policies are set through locally elected school boards, who have jurisdiction over individual school districts. State governments set educational standards and mandate standardized tests for public school systems.

Private schools are generally free to determine their own curriculum and staffing policies, with voluntary accreditation available through independent regional accreditation authorities. 88% of school-age children attend public schools, 9% attend private schools, and nearly 3% are homeschooled.
Beauty portrait of brunette woman.

Education is compulsory over an age range starting between five and eight and ending somewhere between ages sixteen and eighteen, depending on the state. This requirement can be satisfied in public schools, state-certified private schools, or an approved home school program. In most schools, education is divided into three levels: elementary school, middle or junior high school, and high school. Children are usually divided by age groups into grades, ranging from kindergarten and first grade for the youngest children, up to twelfth grade as the final year of high school.

There are also a large number and wide variety of publicly and privately administered institutions of higher education throughout the country.
© Photographer: Neonshot | Agency: Dreamstime.com

December 10, 2014


One of the most outstanding features of reptiles is the texture of their skin. For this reason some of the most arresting images of reptiles are often close ups. I think these types of pictures stimulate deeply rooted primal human fears of monsters when we view them. To capture these kinds of photographs we need to get as up close and personal as we can with our subjects.

Red-bellied Water Snake
© Photographer: Alvera | Agency: Dreamstime.com


Tooth development is the complex process by which teeth form from embryonic cells, grow, and erupt into the mouth. Although many diverse species have teeth, non-human tooth development is largely the same as in humans. For human teeth to have a healthy oral environment, enamel, dentin, cementum, and the periodontium must all develop during appropriate stages of fetal development. Primary (baby) teeth start to form between the sixth and eighth weeks in utero, and permanent teeth begin to form in the twentieth week in utero. If teeth do not start to develop at or near these times, they will not develop at all.

Dentist portrait
A significant amount of research has focused on determining the processes that initiate tooth development. It is widely accepted that there is a factor within the tissues of the first branchial arch that is necessary for the development of teeth. Tooth development is commonly divided into the following stages: the bud stage, the cap, the bell, and finally maturation. The staging of tooth development is an attempt to categorize changes that take place along a continuum.

Enamel formation occurs after the initiation of dentin formation. Cementum begins to form late in the development of a tooth. Supporting structures of teeth must also develop during this time. Tooth eruption occurs when the teeth enter the mouth and become visible. Baby teeth start to appear at about eight months of age, and permanent teeth appear at six years of age.

© Photographer: Alvera | Agency: Dreamstime.com

December 1, 2014


© Photographer: Alvera | Agency: Dreamstime.com

Almost any laminar (flat) material can be used for folding; the only requirement is that it should hold a crease.

Origami paper, often referred to as "kami" (Japanese for paper), is sold in prepackaged squares of various sizes ranging from 2.5 cm (1 in) to 25 cm (10 in) or more. It is commonly colored on one side and white on the other; however, dual coloured and patterned versions exist and can be used effectively for color-changed models. Origami paper weighs slightly less than copy paper, making it suitable for a wider range of models.

Normal copy paper with weights of 70–90 g/m2 can be used for simple folds, such as the crane and waterbomb. Heavier weight papers of (19–24&nb 100 g/m2 (approx. 25 lb) or more can be wet-folded. This technique allows for a more rounded sculpting of the model, which becomes rigid and sturdy when it is dry.

Foil-backed paper, as its name implies, is a sheet of thin foil glued to a sheet of thin paper. Related to this is tissue foil, which is made by gluing a thin piece of tissue paper to kitchen aluminium foil. A second piece of tissue can be glued onto the reverse side to produce a tissue/foil/tissue sandwich. Foil-backed paper is available commercially, but not tissue foil; it must be handmade. Both types of foil materials are suitable for complex models.

Washi (和紙?) is the traditional origami paper used in Japan. Washi is generally tougher than ordinary paper made from wood pulp, and is used in many traditional arts. Washi is commonly made using fibres from the bark of the gampi tree, the mitsumata shrub (Edgeworthia papyrifera), or the paper mulberry but can also be made using bamboo, hemp, rice, and wheat.

Artisan papers such as unryu, lokta, hanji, gampi, kozo, saa, and abaca have long fibers and are often extremely strong. As these papers are floppy to start with, they are often backcoated or resized with methylcellulose or wheat paste before folding. Also, these papers are extremely thin and compressible, allowing for thin, narrowed limbs as in the case of insect models.

Paper money from various countries is also popular to create origami with; this is known variously as Dollar Origami, Orikane, and Money Origami.

Origami twirl qusudama
© Photographer: Alvera | Agency: Dreamstime.com

November 23, 2014

Flood calamity

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